Počet kreditů 6
Vyučováno v Winter
Rozsah výuky 2+2L
Garant předmětu

The subject guides students to gain both theoretical and practical skills in radiofrequency and microwave measurements. It is focused on measurement methods and instruments applied e.g. in telecommunication, radio, radar, cable network, navigation, and other systems working in frequency band from units of MHz to 50 GHz, thus from classical radio to microwave area. Students are informed about basic principles and construction of generators, synthesizers, frequency counters, vector generators, spectrum, signal, scalar and vector analyzers and their applications in various measurement methods. Theoretical knowledge from lectures are supplemented by practical measurements in laboratories equipped with modern instruments applied in current professional practice.


The subject guides students to gain both theoretical and practical skills in radiofrequency and microwave measurements.

1. Fundamental RF and microwave parameters - revision of the most important terms from the RF and microwave field

2. Components of RF and microwave measurement setups - interconnecting lines, connectors, adapters, matched loads

3. Components of RF and microwave measurement setups - attenuators, splitters, combiners, detectors, directional couplers, directional bridges, resonators

4. Power measurements - methods and devices based on thermo-couples, thermistors and detectors

5. Frequency measurements - RF and microwave counters

6. Measurement generators - analog structures, wideband generators, output power stabilization based on ALC loops

7. Sythesizers - frequency stabilization based on PLL and DDS

8. Scalar analyzer - gain and reflection measurements, employment of detectors, directional couplers and directional bridges, calibration and correction

9. Vector network analyzers - basic measurement principles and setups

10. Spectrum analyzer - block diagram, noise features, suppression of mirror signals

11. Spectrum analyzer - optimum setting, applications

12. RF and microwave oscilloscopes - basic types, block diagram, relation between sampling rate and upper frequency, applications, eye-diagram

13. Measurement of noise parameters - noise figure and equivalent noise temperature definitions, measurement principles, calibration and correction, phase-noise measurements

14. Signal analyzer - block diagram, measurement principles, definitions and measurements of EV, EVM, ME, PE, BER

1-st week - Organization of laboratory exercises

2-nd week - Exercise 1 - Spectrum analyzer I. - Measurement of freely propagating radio signals - e.g. FM radio signals, CDMA internet, DVB-T, GSM, DCS, measurement of VCOs

3-rd week - Exercise 2 - Spectrum analyzer II - Measurement of mixers and TX and RX sub-sections

4-th week - Exercise 3 - Scalar analyzer I - calibration and correction, measurement of power dividers, filters and amplifiers equpped with SMA connectors

5-th week - Exercise 4 - EMC measurements - L and C couplings

6-th week - Exercise 5 - Scalar analyzer II. - Measurement of antenna radiation patterns

7-th week - Exercise 6 - Vector network analyzer I - Calibration, measurement of resistors, capacitors and inductors up to 1GHz, derivation of circuit models

8-th week - Exercise 7 - Scalar analyzer II - Measurement of waveguide components - measurement of gain of attenuator, filters, isolator, circulator, directional coupler, measurement of reflections based on directional coupler

9-th week - Exercise 8 - Vector generator and signal analyzer - Measurement of EVM as function of the S/N ratio for signals with BPSK, QPSK, xPSK and xQAM modulations

10-th week - Exercise 9 - Vector network analyzer II - Calibration, measurement of transistor s-parameters, IQ modulator, phase-shifter and filters

11-th week - Exercise 10 - Measurement of non-linear and noise parameters - measurement of freqiuency multipliers, oscillator phase-noise, measurement of amplifier and attenuator noise figure based on the COLD techniques

12-th week - Checking of measurement protocols

13-th week - Checking of measurement protocols

14-th week - Assessment of laboratory exercises

Teppati V. and al: Modern RF and Microwave Measurement Techniques, Cambridge University Press 2013

Carvalho N. B., Schreurs Dd.: Microwave and Wireless Measurement Techniques, Cambridge University Press 2013

Bryant G. H., Principles of Microwave Measurements, IEE Electrical measurement series 5, Peter Peregrinus Ltd.

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