The course Physics II is closely linked with the course Physics I. Within the framework of this course the students will first of all learn foundations of thermodynamics. Following topic - the theory of waves - will give to the students basic insight into the properties of waves and will help to the students to understand that the presented description of the waves has a universal character in spite of the waves character. Particular types of waves, such as acoustic or optical waves are the subjects of the following section. Quantum mechanics and nuclear physics will complete the student´s general education in physics. The knowledge gained in this course will help to the students in study of such modern areas as robotics, computer vision, measuring technique and will allow them to understand the principles of novel technologies and functioning of new electronic devices.
In the seminars, students will solve complex physics problems based on the use of the mathematical software Maple.
Knowledge of Physics I. Basic knowledge of the differential and integral calculus of the function of more variable and linear algebra.
1. Temperature, heat, kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas law, thermal expansion of matter.
2. Work internal energy, 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy and probability, 3nd law of thermodynamics.
3. Fundamentals of waves (phase velocity, group velocity, dissipation and dispersion of waves, dispersion relationship) general wave equation.
4. Superposition of waves, Huygens´ principle, diffraction of waves, Doppler effect, rays approximation.
5. Acoustic waves, fundamental quantities, linear wave equation of acoustics, intensity level and acoustic pressure level.
6. Geometrical optics - light ray, Fermat´s principle, reflection and refraction, critical refraction, thin lenses.
7. Wave optics - diffraction, Fresnel´s and Fraunhofer´s diffraction, interference of light, Bragg´s law, interferometry, foundations of the Fourier´s optics.
8. Polarization and dispersion of light. Anisotropic media, application of polarization, liquid crystals. Holography. Luminescence (photoluminescence, electroluminescence and triboluminescence).
9. Fundamentals of photometry (luminous flux, luminous intensity, illuminance, luminous emittance, adsorption of light).
10. Introduction to quantum mechanics - black-body radiation, photoelectric and Compton´s effect, Bohr´s model of atom.
11. Wave properties of matter, Schrodinger´s equation, uncertainty principle, particle in a potential well, tunnel effect, quantum dot.
12. Quantum numbers, band theory of solids (conductors, semiconductors and dielectrics).
13. Lasers (gaseous, semiconductor and ruby).
14. Fundamentals of nuclear physics, radioactivity, sub-nuclear particles. Accelerators. Fusion and fission.
1. Introduction, safety instructions, laboratory rules, list of experiments.
2. Statistical distributions in physics. Poisson´s and Gauss´ distribution - demonstration using the radioactive decay.
3. Measurement of the speed of sound using sonar and acoustic Doppler effect. Diffraction of acoustic waves.
4. Measurement of reflection of polarized light (Fresnel´s formulae).
5. Determination of the Boltzmann´s constant from the volt-ampere characteristics of the p-n junction.
6. Thermal expansion of solids and liquids.
7. Peltier´s cell.
8. Test from Physics II.
9. Absorbtion of ionizing radiation by materials.
10. Photoelectric effect and Planck´s constant.
11. Franck-Hertz experiment and measurement of excitation energy of the mercury atom.
12. Diffraction of light, Fresnel´s and Fraunhofer´s diffraction.
13. Measurement of wavelength by prism spectrometer.
14. Grading of laboratory reports. Assessment.
1. Physics I, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Dept. of Physics FEE CTU, 1992.
2. Physics I - Seminars, M. Murla, S. Pekárek, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1995.
3. Physics II, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2003.
4. Physics II - Seminars, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1996.
5. Physics I - II, Laboratory manual, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2002.