The subject deals with the architecture of the radio receivers and transmitters and software radio. The student s familiarize with the design and the modern methods of optimization of the radio receivers and transmitters' functional blocks and with the phenomena related with frequency conversion, noise sources and noise analyses. They learn conceptual radio receiver and transmitter design, including the level and frequency plans and their optimization. The course also deals with the digital signal processing blocks of the modern radio receivers and their practical implementation.
Mathematics, theory of signals and systems, analog and digital circuits and basic blocks (bachelor level)
1. Parameters of the radio receivers and transmitters (selectivity, sensitivity, dynamic range, spurious response, BER, intermodulation, cross-modulation, parasitic radiation, radiation mask, non-harmonics components, C/N, S/N)
2. Narrow band and wideband radio frequency amplifiers, dynamic range, dynamic distortion, slew rate, noise property, of the radio frequency amplifiers, RF power amplifiers (low, medium levels), distributed amplifiers, their limiting factors.
3. Realization of the RF and IF filters, basic parameters (insertion loss, conditions of non-distortion processing), quartz resonators, monolithic and discrete quartz filters, ceramic filters, helical filters, resonator and transversal SAW filters.
4. Parameters of frequency generators (frequency stability, harmonic and non-harmonics spurs, aging, oscillator tuning, transient response). Frequency synthesizer, negative differential resistance oscillator, feedback oscillators, quartz oscillators and oscillators with distributive gain.
5. Frequency conversion, mixers, image rejection mixers, double and multiple balanced mixers, intermodulation, spurious reception, methods of analysis and optimization of the mixing products.
6. Noise in receiver and transmitter: internal and external noise, noise classification according to their physical cause. Equivalent noise temperature and noise figure of the cascade. Methods of analyzing and optimization of the noise parameters.
7. Architecture of the radio receivers and transmitters - tuned radio receiver, super regenerative receiver, single and multiple conversion super heterodyne receiver, direct conversion receiver, low-IF receiver, receiver with wideband IF amplifier.
8. Radio receiver frequency and level plan and its optimization, reciprocal mixing, mixing table, spurious response, spurs.
9. Analog to digital conversion of the received signal (IF, RF and baseband sampling, jitter). Receivers and transmitters auxiliary circuits (AGC, AFC, antenna tuner, squelch, PSW meter).
10. Radio transmitter architecture, special power amplifier components (semiconductor, vacuum) used in final stages of the transmitters. Power amplifier classes.
11. Modulation on RF and IF, modulator types, quadrature modulator, impulse modulator, FM modulator. Linearization. Special optimization methods for power amplifiers. Special measurement methods for transmitters.
12. Digital signal processing blocks before and after modulator and demodulator. DUC, DDC, realization.
13. Software defined radio, cognitive radio. Basic concept, architectures, application in communication, measurement and mobile technology.
14. Digital signal processors for software radio, parallel digital signal processing, digital IF stage, direct digital synthesis, FPGA implementation.
The seminars are focused on the laboratory measurement of the presented topics. The students will prepare measurement reports. In the frame of the seminars, students will solve an individual task that will be presented at the end of the school term.
1. Laboratory introduction, safety rules
2. Laboratory measurement of the radio receiver sensitivity, BER, PER, selectivity, spurious response, spurious radiation
3. Laboratory measurement of the radio transmitter spectra, harmonic and non-harmonic response
4. Laboratory measurement of the transfer function of the discrete quartz filter, ceramic and SAW filter.
5. Design and measurement of the synthesizer
6. Laboratory measurement of the mixing table, conversion losses, gates isolation of the double balanced diodes frequency mixer
7. Noise figure measurement
8. Laboratory measurement of the intermodulation immunity of the radio receiver
9. Conceptual design of the radio receiver
10. Processing of the VKV FM radio by the SDR receiver
11. Conceptual design of the radio receiver, specification of the individual task
12. Consultation of the individual task
13. Presentation of the individual task solution
14. Supplementary laboratory measurement
1. Rohde, U.L.: Communications receivers DSP, software radios, and design, McGraw-Hill 2001, ISBN: 0-07-136121-9.
2. Vendelin, G.D.; Pavio, A.M.; Rohde, U.L.: Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques.
3. Misra, D.K: Radio-Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
(+ http://radio.feld.cvut.cz/personal/dobes2/dobes.en.pdf (PDFs for Education))