The course provides overview of key findings from aircraft aerodynamics and flight mechanics. In the first part, students are familiar with models and equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid. In the second part there are derived equations describing force and rotating effects of flow on the surface of the airfoils and wings. The important relations for effects of compressibility are derived in the next part. These findings are applied on flow around the airfoils and wings at high subsonic and supersonic speeds in last part. In the subject there are discussed basic modes of flight mechanics and basic design methods of air propellers.
1. Properties of gases, flow models, basic equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics.
2. Navier-Stokes equation. Potential flow, lift. Properties of vortex and vortex fields.
3. Dimensional analysis and similarity, empirical relation for lift. Laminar and turbulent flow. Boundary layer.
4. Airfoil, aerodynamic force and moment. Theory of thin profile, integral characteristics of the airfoil.
5. Influence of boundary layer on the integral characteristics of airfoils. Methods of singularities, panel methods.
6. Geometry of wing. Theory of wing, induced parameters. Monoplane equation and its solution. Influence of ground plan shape and twist of wing.
7. Devices for increasing of lift. The concept of the longitudinal and directional stability.
8. Aircraft aerodynamics - fuselage, control surfaces effects. Position of the center of gravity. Aircraft dynamic stability.
9. Propulsive system. Theory of propeller propulsion. The main rotor of the helicopter. Turbine jet engine.
10. Helicopter rotor systems. Theory of aircraft propellers. Vortex theory. Elementary profile method. Propeller characteristics. Fixed and adjustable propellers.
11. Flight mechanics - gliding, horizontal, ascending flight, steady horizontal turn, slipping & skidding turn.
12. Flight mechanics - Weight and altitude effects. Takeoff and landing. Standard atmosphere model.
13. Effects of compressibility. Critical Mach number, transonic divergence, swept wing. Transonic flow.
14. Supersonic flow, critical state. Shock and expansion wave. Expansion. Supersonic flows around oblique plate.
Laboratories will extend the discussed theory with a practical side, which will consist of: i) calculations in Matlab / Simulink, CFD program Fluent, ii) practical demonstrations in laboratories and iii) practical measurements in a wind tunnel and on the testbed for propeller/engine parameters measuring.
Specifically, it will be about:
• Flow in the duct, calculation of losses. Basic calculations. Assignments of a student semester mini projects.
• Flow modeling, Matlab / Simulink program (potential flow modeling)
• Numeric solution of flow fields, CFD program Fluent.
• Integral characteristics of the profile. Design of the profile with required properties. Panel methods.
• Integral characteristics of the wing. Wing and panel methods.
• Wing design. Effects of flaps and wing torsion.
• Design of tail surfaces, stability and maneuverability.
• Design of required thrust for taking-off, horizontal flight, ascent, VTOL.
• Propeller design, elementary profile method.
• Flight mechanics.
• Isoentropic flow, critical state.
• Measurements in the laboratory - measurements in a wind tunnel.
• Measurements in the laboratory - measurement of propellers.
- Anderson, J. D. Jr.: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. McGraw-Hill, 2007. ISBN: 13978-0-07-295046-5
- Hughton, E.,L., Carpenter P., W.: Aerodynamics for Engineering Students. Butterworth-Heinemann 2003. ISBN: 978-0-7506-5111-0
- Phillips, W. F.: Mechanics of Flight. John Wiley & Sons, 2004. ISBN: 0-471-33458-8