### Physics 2

##### B232 - Summer 23/24
This is a grouped Moodle course. It consists of several separate courses that share learning materials, assignments, tests etc. Below you can see information about the individual courses that make up this Moodle course.

#### Physics 2 - B3B02FY2

##### Main course
 Credits 6 Semesters Winter Completion Assessment + Examination Language of teaching Czech Extent of teaching 3P+1L+2C
Annotation
The course Physics 2 is closely linked with the course Physics 1. Within the framework of this course the students will first of all learn foundations of thermodynamics. Following topic - the theory of waves - will give to the students basic insight into the properties of waves and will help to the students to understand that the presented description of the waves has a universal character in spite of the waves character. Particular types of waves, such as acoustic or optical waves are the subjects of the following section. Quantum mechanics and nuclear physics will complete the student?s general education in physics. The knowledge gained in this course will help to the students in study of such modern areas as
robotics, computer vision, measuring technique and will allow them to understand the principles of novel technologies and functioning of new electronic devices.
Course outlines
1. Thermodynamic systems, state variables, temperature, heat, work, internal energy, ideal gas law, heat capacities, 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic processes, heat engines, entropy, heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation), 3nd law of thermodynamics, thermal expansion, kinetic theory of gases.
2. Fundamentals of waves (phase velocity, group velocity, dissipation and dispersion of waves, dispersion relationship) general wave equation. Doppler effect. Wave equation for electromagnetic and acoustic waves, propagation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves.
3. Constructive and destructive interference, coherent waves, diffraction, Huygens? principle.
4. Geometrical optics, light ray, paraxial approximation, Fermat?s principle, reflection and refraction, critical refraction.
5. Wave optics - Fresnel?s and Fraunhofer?s diffraction, interference of light.
6. Polarization and dispersion of light. Anisotropic media, Brewster law, application of polarization, liquid crystals.
7. Introduction to quantum mechanics - black-body radiation, photoelectric and Compton?s effect, Bohr?s model of atom.
8. Wave particle duality, wave function, de Broglie hypothesis, Born probability.
9. Schrodinger?s equation, (free particle, particle in a potential wall, tunnel effect, harmonic oscillator), uncertainty principle.
10. Motion in the central field, quantization of angular momentum, quantum numbers, spin, Fermions and bosons,
Pauli exclusion principle.
11. Band theory of solids (conductors, semiconductors and dielectrics).
12. Lasers, spontaneous and stimulated emission, inverse population.
13. Fundamentals of nuclear physics, (nuclear properties, radioactivity, fission and fusion).
14. Reserve
Literature

1. Physics I, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Dept. of Physics FEE CTU, 1992.
2. Physics I - Seminars, M. Murla, S. Pekárek, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1995.
3. Physics I - II, Laboratory manual, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2002.

#### Physics 2 - A8B02PH2

 Credits 7 Semesters Winter Completion Assessment + Examination Language of teaching Czech Extent of teaching 4P+2L
Annotation
The course Physics 2 is closely linked with the course Physics 1. Within the framework of this course the students will first of all learn foundations of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. Following topic - the theory of waves - will give to the students basic insight into the properties of waves and will help to the students to understand that the presented description of the waves has a universal character in spite of the waves character. Particular types of waves, such as acoustic or electromagnetic waves are the subjects of the following section. Quantum mechanics physics will complete the student´s general education in physics. The knowledge gained in this course will help to the students in study of modern technical areas encountered during their studies and will allow them to understand the principles of novel technologies and functioning of new electronic devices.
Course outlines
1. Thermodynamic systems, state and process thermodynamic quantities, temperature, heat, work, internal energy, ideal gas, state equations, heat capacity, 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy, 3nd law of thermodynamics.
2. Microstate and macrostate of a system, statistical ensembles, statistical definition of entropy, the maximum entropy principle, fundamental probability distributions, kinetic theory of gases.
3. Fundamentals of waves (phase velocity, group velocity, dissipation and dispersion of waves, dispersion relationship) general wave equation, Doppler effect.
4. Superpositions of waves, constructive and destructive interference, coherence, wave diffraction, Huygens´ principle, diffraction of waves, the near and far field.
5. Acoustic waves, fundamental quantities, linear wave equation of acoustics, intensity level and acoustic pressure level.
6. Wave equation of the electromagnetic field, the Poyting vector, propagation of electromagnetic waves, polarization and dispersion of light. Anisotropic media, application of polarization.
7. Geometrical optics - rays approximation, light ray, Fermat´s principle, reflection and refraction, critical refraction, thin lenses.
8. Wave optics - diffraction, Fresnel´s and Fraunhofer´s diffraction, interference of light, Bragg´s law, foundations of the Fourier´s optics.
9. Fundamentals of photometry (luminous flux, luminous intensity, illuminance, luminous emittance, adsorption of light)..
10. Introduction to quantum mechanics - black-body radiation, photoelectric and Compton´s effect, Bohr´s model of atom.
11. Fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: the relationship between analytical and quantum mechanics. Operators: Hermite and unitary operators, Dirac notation. Measurement in quantum theory. Compatibility, Heisenberg's uncertainty principles.
12. Representation theory: x, p, E representation. Wave function. Schrodinger equation, examples.
13. Harmonic oscillator, the central field, the quantum numbers.
14. Fermions and bosons. Spin. Pauli exclusion principle.
Literature
1. Moran, M. J., Shapiro, H N., Boettner, D. D., Bailey, M. B.: Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley & sons Inc., 2011.
2. Griffiths, D. J.: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, Prentice Hall, 2005.
3. Hecht, E.: Optics, Adison Wesley, 2002.
4. Yoshioka, D.: Statistical Physics - An Introduction, Springer, 2007.
5. Serway, R. A. Moses, C. J. , Moyer, C. A.: Modern Physics, Thomson Learning Inc., 2005.
6. Benenson, W., Harris, J. W., Stocker, H., Lutz, H.: Handbook of Physics, Springer, 2002.

#### Physics 2 for KyR - A3B02FY2

 Credits 6 Semesters Winter Completion Assessment + Examination Language of teaching Czech Extent of teaching 3+2L
Annotation
The course Physics II is closely linked with the course Physics I. Within the framework of this course the students will first of all learn foundations of thermodynamics. Following topic - the theory of waves - will give to the students basic insight into the properties of waves and will help to the students to understand that the presented description of the waves has a universal character in spite of the waves character. Particular types of waves, such as acoustic or optical waves are the subjects of the following section. Quantum mechanics and nuclear physics will complete the student´s general education in physics. The knowledge gained in this course will help to the students in study of such modern areas as robotics, computer vision, measuring technique and will allow them to understand the principles of novel technologies and functioning of new electronic devices.
In the seminars, students will solve complex physics problems based on the use of the mathematical software Maple.
Course outlines
1. Temperature, heat, kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas law, thermal expansion of matter.
2. Work internal energy, 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy and probability, 3nd law of thermodynamics.
3. Fundamentals of waves (phase velocity, group velocity, dissipation and dispersion of waves, dispersion relationship) general wave equation.
4. Superposition of waves, Huygens´ principle, diffraction of waves, Doppler effect, rays approximation.
5. Acoustic waves, fundamental quantities, linear wave equation of acoustics, intensity level and acoustic pressure level.
6. Geometrical optics - light ray, Fermat´s principle, reflection and refraction, critical refraction, thin lenses.
7. Wave optics - diffraction, Fresnel´s and Fraunhofer´s diffraction, interference of light, Bragg´s law, interferometry, foundations of the Fourier´s optics.
8. Polarization and dispersion of light. Anisotropic media, application of polarization, liquid crystals. Holography. Luminescence (photoluminescence, electroluminescence and triboluminescence).
9. Fundamentals of photometry (luminous flux, luminous intensity, illuminance, luminous emittance, adsorption of light).
10. Introduction to quantum mechanics - black-body radiation, photoelectric and Compton´s effect, Bohr´s model of atom.
11. Wave properties of matter, Schrodinger´s equation, uncertainty principle, particle in a potential well, tunnel effect, quantum dot.
12. Quantum numbers, band theory of solids (conductors, semiconductors and dielectrics).
13. Lasers (gaseous, semiconductor and ruby).
14. Fundamentals of nuclear physics, radioactivity, sub-nuclear particles. Accelerators. Fusion and fission.
Exercises outlines
1. Introduction, safety instructions, laboratory rules, list of experiments.
2. Statistical distributions in physics. Poisson´s and Gauss´ distribution - demonstration using the radioactive decay.
3. Measurement of the speed of sound using sonar and acoustic Doppler effect. Diffraction of acoustic waves.
4. Measurement of reflection of polarized light (Fresnel´s formulae).
5. Determination of the Boltzmann´s constant from the volt-ampere characteristics of the p-n junction.
6. Thermal expansion of solids and liquids.
7. Peltier´s cell.
8. Test from Physics II.
9. Absorbtion of ionizing radiation by materials.
10. Photoelectric effect and Planck´s constant.
11. Franck-Hertz experiment and measurement of excitation energy of the mercury atom.
12. Diffraction of light, Fresnel´s and Fraunhofer´s diffraction.
13. Measurement of wavelength by prism spectrometer.
14. Grading of laboratory reports. Assessment.
Literature
1. Physics I, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Dept. of Physics FEE CTU, 1992.
2. Physics I - Seminars, M. Murla, S. Pekárek, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1995.
3. Physics II, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2003.
4. Physics II - Seminars, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1996.
5. Physics I - II, Laboratory manual, S. Pekárek, M. Murla, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2002.
Requirements
Knowledge of Physics I. Basic knowledge of the differential and integral calculus of the function of more variable and linear algebra.